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Rheumataoid Arthritis (RA) Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
Spondyloarthopathies Ankylosing Spondylitis
Psoriatic Arthritis Behcet's disease
Infective Arthritis Polymyositis
Dermatomyoisitis Gout
Osteoarthrosis Osteoporosis
    Other Types of Connective Tissue Diseases

Rheumataoid Arthritis (RA)

RA is a chronic disease characterized by multiple joint pain, Swelling in a symmetrical manner (affecting both side of body). Pain in RA, worsen in morning hours. Some times patient feel feverishness at hike of pain. It is a world wide disease and affect female more commonly than male. If not treated in early stage, may lead to deformities of affected joints. In long turn it affect lungs, eye, salivary gland. It may also cause ulcer in legs. Since exact cause of disease is not known, so cure generally does not occur. By proper treatment disease can be controlled.

It is a multi-system disease of unknown aetiology and is thought to be due to disturbance in immune regulation in a genetically susceptible individual. Patient may complain of joint pain, fever, muscle pain, weakness, skin rashes over face, nasal bridge, falling of hair, mouth ulcer, Raynauds phenomenon (discoloration of finger tips while exposing to cold). It can affect heart (pericarditis, myocarditis & endocarditis), lung (pleurisy, pleural effusion). Fibrosing alveolitis and lupus-pneumonitis. Renal involvement (nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, causing swelling over face & legs). Headache, psychosis, seizure and other common neurological symptom. Recurrent loss of pregnancy, disturbance in regular menstrual cycle are common in female patients.

Spondyloarthopathies

These are a group of diseases characterized by Joint pain, extra articular symptoms and negative Rheumatoid factor. It include ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, Psoriatic arthritis, Enteropathic arthritis (ulcerative colitis) and various undifferentiated arthropathies. The exact cause is not known but it is thought that when a genetically susceptible (HLA B27 positive) individual get infected with certain bacterial agent, then in some of them this disease develops. This is common in young male, however any one can be affected. Patients may complain of lower back pain, neck pain, back & neck stiffness, joint pain & swelling, redness in eyes etc.

Ankylosing Spondylitis

Seen mostly in men in 2nd & 3rd decade Characterized by back pain neck pain& stiffness and other joint pain & swelling. If not recognized earlier then there may be bending of spine. In long run, spine become stiff (bamboo spine) and immobile. Chances of bone fracture is more in these types of patients.

Psoriatic Arthritis

Psoriatic arthritis occur in patient suffering from psoriasis. Nail changes (like pitting, anycholysis, hyperkeratosis, horizontal ridging) along with bigger and smaller joints involvement. Sacroilitis and spondylitis occurs just like ankylosing spondylitis.

Behcet's disease

It is characterized by recurrent ulcer in mouth & genital area, skin lesion, inflammation in eye, joints pain, ulcer in intestine & thrombophlebitis.

Infective Arthritis

This is a septic arthritis, can occur at any age caused by infective agents eg: Staphylococcal, Streptococcal or other various organism. Septic arthritis generally occur in Diabetic mellitus, poor health or immuno-compromised patients. Septic arthritis require proper diagnosis & treatment with antibiotic.

Polymyositis

This is characterized by muscle weakness, difficulty in climbing stairs, standing from sitting position, raising hands above shoulder, joint pain & swelling. Some time the onset of disease may be abrupt with rapid progression of weakness of respiratory muscle leading to respiratory failure and death.

Dermatomyoisitis

This is more common in women, muscle weakness accompanied by periorbital oedema and heliotrope rash on upper eyelids, scaling rash on face, upper arm and chest. Red patches over knuckles, elbow and knee beside muscular pain weight loss and joint pain.

Gout

(Crystal deposition diseases), In this disease crystal of monosodium urate get deposited in various tissue and causes arthritis, tenosynovitis, bursitis, cellulitis, swelling in legs, renal calculas disease, tophi formation. This is due to increased production uric acid after taking of high protein diet (meat, excess of pulses). This disease is more common in post pubertal male. In acute gout great toe, ankle or knee are commonly involved, patient may get severe pain in midnight or early morning in affected joints.

Osteoarthrosis

(OA, osteoarthritis, or degenerative joint disease) is a name given to a variety of joint failure. In this disease there occur degeneration of articular cartilage, decreased space in joint & spur (bone) formation at the end of bone, this may changes the contour of joint, in some cases there may be little inflammation and swelling of joint. Knee, spine, neck and hips are commonly affected. Patient may complain of severe pain in knee joints while walking, standing from sitting position or climbing stairs. In advanced stage pain became continuous.

Osteoporosis

It is caused by thinning of bones which lead increased bone fragility and increased risk of fracture. It mainly affect women after menopause or who on steroid containing drugs. Osteoporosis is less common in men. Some risk factor like poor diet, law body weight, Smoking, lack of exercise and use of corticosteroid may lead to osteoporosis. Patients are advised to take Calcium containing diet or calcium supplementation.

 
 
 
 
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